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RNA 'Transcriptome' Sequenced in Immune Cells
When studying any kind of population — people or
cells — averaging is a useful, if flawed, form of
measurement. According to the US Census Bureau, the
average American household size in 2010 was 2.59. Of
course, there are no homes with exactly 2.59 people. By
inspecting each house individually, one would see some
homes occupied by a single individual, and others by
large families. These extremes get lost when values are
averaged over a population.
A similar masking of information happens when cells are studied in large numbers. Researchers have typically taken top-down approaches, watching how things change in thousands or millions of cells and trying to infer what happened within each one. New technological advances, however, are giving scientists powerful, high-resolution genomic tools to monitor individual cells, offering an unprecedented view of cellular function and circuitry.
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2-year-old girl gets windpipe made from stem cells
Hannah Warren has been unable to breathe, eat, drink
or swallow on her own since she was born in South Korea
in 2010. Until the operation at a central Illinois
hospital, she had spent her entire life in a hospital in
Seoul. Doctors there told her parents there was no hope
and they expected her to die.
The stem cells came from Hannah's bone marrow, extracted with a special needle inserted into her hip bone. They were seeded in a lab onto a plastic scaffold, where it took less than a week for them to multiply and create a new windpipe.
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Gold nanocages could image and treat tumours
Tiny gold particles called nanocages that emit
Cerenkov light could be used to image tumours and
deliver drugs to destroy them at the same time. That is
the claim of researchers in the US, who have detected
Cerenkov light from within live mice that had been
injected with the nanoparticles. The nanocages are among
the very first reported "theranostic" nanoparticles that
have the potential to fulfil both therapeutic and
diagnostic roles in medicine.
Gold nanocages are tiny structures with hollow interiors and ultrathin porous walls. They are of particular interest to medical researchers because they do not interact with biological materials and can therefore be used within the body. Nanocages can also be designed to absorb and scatter light in the near-infrared (NIR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Light at these wavelengths (700–900 nm) can penetrate deeply into soft biological tissue and so is perfect for optical imaging based on photoacoustic and optical-coherence tomography.
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